Heart Failure has been recognized to be an inflammatory disease for over 20 years. However, several attempts to use immunomodulation to prevent and treat heart failure have failed, due to toxicity or lack of efficacy. In order to overcome this problem Dr Luigi Adamo and Dr Doug Mann from Washington University in St Louis used a "reverse engineering" approach . They decided to study immunomodulatory molecules that were both known to be safe in humans and proven to have cardioprotective effects in order to identify novel targets and tools to treat heart failure. This research effort led to both the identification of B lymphocytes as an innovative target to modulate the immune response in heart failure and to the identification of Pirfenidone as an ideal starting point to develop a safe and effective drug for this patient population. i-Cordis, LLC was spun off to bring these exciting findings to fruition.